Tuesday, May 17, 2016

Pruning Roses - A Primer

Roses are among the most loved flowering plants, and spring pruning is necessary to keep most varieties blooming. While you should always check your local gardening calendar for proper spring pruning, here are some proven pruning tips to keep roses blooming in landscapes, especially in areas from the Rocky Mountains east to New England.

Know What Rose is Your Rose
Different roses get pruned differently. The main categories of roses are:

1) repeat bloomers, like hybrid teas as well as grandifloras and floribundas
2) climbers/ramblers
3) shrub roses, also called old garden types

There are two pruning “seasons” for roses. One is spring pruning, just as buds break dormancy. The other pruning happens just after roses flower.

The type of rose determines whether the rose needs spring pruning. Repeat bloomers usually need a heavy spring pruning just as the buds break dormancy. Climbers and ramblers, as well as old-fashioned shrub roses, are only pruned after flowering. Other types, especially newer climber/rambler cultivars like climbing hybrid tea roses, need little or minimal pruning.

The time has passed in many areas for spring rose pruning. But if you live in a colder zone – or are just a little late to the spring pruning party – here’s a helpful article on spring pruning, from Purdue University.

Tips for All Types
Again, we can’t emphasize enough: you must prune your rosebushes in the way that’s suited for the rose type and your particular growing zone. But no matter what your zone or rose type, here are some surefire tips for successful pruning, courtesy of Clemson University Extension:

  • Remove damaged, dying or diseased stems and canes as soon as you spot them.
  • Use a pruning tool that minimizes damage to the rosebush. Pruners that cut like a pair of scissors are usually better than “anvil” style pruners that crush stems.
  • The center of the canes or stems should appear white, not brown, after cutting. If there is brown discoloration, cut more of the stem off.
  • Keep the center of the rosebush open by making pruning cuts above buds set to grow outward from the plant.
  • Seal pruning cuts made on rose canes thicker than a pencil; Clemson recommends using nail polish or wood glue. This will help keep out cane pests.
  • Older climbing/rambling varieties produce the best flowers on one-year old wood. Prune away only the oldest stems, after flowering.

Proper pruning keeps your roses delivering beautiful blooms for many seasons. For more information, here are some free information resources that we found most informative:

Pruning Roses (Clemson University)

Roses: Care After Planting (University of Missouri)
Includes detailed pruning diagrams

Pruning Roses (Colorado)

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

Composting Made Easy

Composting is a simple way to improve the health of your garden or yard by adding nutrient-dense mixtures overtop. The best part is it’s 100% free to do and is excellent for the environment. Here’s how to get started composting.

What You Need…

First things first, gather your materials.
  • A container: Choose a 3’ x 3’ x 3’ container that is made of wood or even hard plastic. For small scale composting recycle an old, large garbage can and simply drill a hole in the bottom of the container for drainage. 
  • Find a shady spot: Compost thrives in a shaded environment. Choose an area in your yard that doesn’t get a ton of sun throughout the day. 
  • Browns and greens: Browns include leaves, wood chips, straw, branches, and the like. Greens are eggshells, grass, carrot tops and so forth. 
  • Manure: This is optional, but ideal if you want to get the most out of your compost.
  • Water hose: You’ll need to water your compost occasionally, so get a water hose if you don’t have one. 
  • Pitchfork: Trust us, you’ll want this tool if you’re mixing or moving compost. 

How to Do It…

  1. Compost requires a three to one ratio for browns and greens. Browns are carbon-rich and greens are nitrogen rich.
  2. Start by adding those carbon-rich browns to your barrel. Once those are good and packed in. You can start adding your greens. 
  3. When it’s time to add new material, use your pitchfork, to dig a hole and then add in the new stuff. Mix it thoroughly with the old compost.
  4. Finally, add water. You’ll want to do this occasionally to moisten the mixture to keep bacteria and microbes consuming the contents.

Tips for Composting

  • Include activators like chicken manure, earthworms, and comfrey leaves to help break down the greens and browns.
  • Steaming compost piles are a good sign that your hard work is paying off, so don’t panic if you see it coming from your pile!
  • Reduce odors by leaving out meat scraps and bones in your compost.
So, what are you waiting for? Get started with your compost pile by using these helpful tips today!

Monday, October 19, 2015

As The Leaf Turns

Did the leaves where you live seem to be turning late this year? Maybe it seemed they are falling early? Or maybe it’s a combination of the two: The leaves seem to be turning early, but are staying on the trees longer….

It turns out (pun entirely intended) opinions abound about leaves: where the most spectacular foliage is located, when the peak time for viewing turning leaves, how soon and how heavy the leaf fall is.

We’re unlikely to settle any debates about where the foliage is most spectacular. But whether talking about sugar maples in New England or aspens in the Rockies, leaf turn and leaf drop depend an awful lot on science.

Variations in temperature and moisture are the factors affecting the seasonality of leaf drop the most. Fall’s cooler nights and shorter days trigger trees to begin restricting the flow of water to the leaf. Chlorophyll production is reduced as water flow is reduced, and that loss of chlorophyll results in the leaves turning from green (lots of chlorophyll) to the myriad of fall colors.

Leaf turn occurs as chlorophyll production declines. Early freezes, as well droughts in the late summer and early fall, can accelerate the decline of chlorophyll production – and contribute to early leaf drop. Leaf color hues can also be affected by droughts.

The whole process is how the tree’s leaves are protected from frost damage – the less water in the leaf, the less damage done by frost. The water flow is reduced to the leaf by a layer of cells at the base of the leaf stem. As these cells block water flow to the leaf, it also allows the leaf to make a clean break from the tree.

That’s the point when the Cyclone Rake does its work: collecting the fallen leaves from your yard and landscape. By this time in late October and early November, Cyclone Rake owners are collecting fallen leaves from the yardscape. Wind or rain will accelerate the leaf drop.

Chopped leaves can be composted or used to mulch around plantings or as a soil amendment in flower and vegetable gardens. Decaying leaves help raise the amount of organic matter in the soil – providing a basis for beauty in your landscape, just as decaying in the forests feed the forest soil, eventually helping create the fall foliage enjoyed by all.

Thursday, September 24, 2015

Let's Go To The County Fair

Harvest festivals have ancient roots, but the county agricultural fair is the American forerunner of today’s fall celebrations. They’re especially prevalent in New England, where most towns have some sort of fall country fair.

State, regional and county fairs offer all kinds of good family fun (and, of course, plenty of deep fried indulgences). But they also remain one of the best places to connect with the country’s rural roots, as fairs showcase farms and agriculture of all kinds.

Much of the entertainment at the fair is connected to farming in some way – pig scrambles and the like. The 4-H Club farm animal shows give the public a chance to see how there are differences between food animals on the hoof. Spend time talking with those 4-H Club members in the animal barns, and you’ll discover the care and joy that kids take in raising their livestock and poultry.

Other state and county fair events showcase farming traditions. New England’s ox and steer pulls show where horsepower originated. (There’s still time to catch ox pulls at Maine’s largest fair, the Fryeburg Fair, or the Rochester Fair in New Hampshire). Competitive fair rodeos, especially in the South and West, showcase classic cowboy skills still employed on ranches. The fair season is still in full swing across Texas, as the East Texas State Fair celebrates 100 years in Tyler, and the Panhandle South Plains Fair features plenty of entertainment in Lubbock.

Fairs and fall festivals also give attenders the chance to connect with where their food comes from – and we’re not just talking fried pies and funnel cakes. Home arts contests show the best produce from local fields and classic food preservation methods. And many more farms, especially those focused on local foods, or “farm to table,” are using fairs and festivals to showcase their offerings.

Even local farmers markets take on a more festive feel in the fall, as vendor booths come alive with pumpkins, winter squash of all shapes and sizes, mums and other ornamentals – not to mention sweet lettuce and greens, carrots and other cold-season crops.

Big E in Massachusetts
So whether it’s a huge display, like the Big E in Massachusetts, or your hometown’s fall country fair, take your family to the fair. It’s the best place in the fall to connect with the country’s rural roots – and to see how farmers of all ages, all across the country, are still growing the finest and most delicious food.

Tuesday, September 8, 2015

Invest in Fall for a Beautiful Spring Lawn

When it comes to yard care, spring gets plenty of press – but what you do in the fall can get your yardscape ready for next spring. Use these reminders to invest lovely autumn mornings, evenings and weekends toward a beautiful spring.

Remember to Water

The first week of September is shaping up hotter and drier than normal in many regions. Keep evergreens and other perennials primed for a healthy winter by considering supplemental watering in September. Evaporation can still be an issue in September, so water in the early morning to let moisture soak in.

Sow the Seed

Turfgrass is best seeded in the fall. There’s still time, through mid-September, to prep the soil and sow for new seedings in most regions. Fall overseeding is another yard chore that will pay dividends come next year. Consider overseeding with grass species different from the most prominent in your turf; lawn diversity can guard against some disease pressure.

Watch for Diseases

Speaking of disease pressure, cool and wet fall weather will bring it on. Fungi causing “fairy rings,” powdery mildew, and rusts on grasses are three common fall yard invaders. Mowing to proper heights can help keep grass rusts at bay during fall.

Keep it Clean

Too many leaves and grass clippings on the yard during winter are a liability. Thick organic matter left in a yard can encourage snow molds and patchy lawn growth come spring.
Your Cyclone Rake can help turn your leaves and other organic matter into a yard and garden asset. Deliver leaves to the compost pile or spread them thinly onto gardens or beds, for the winter, to be incorporated into the soil in the spring.

Fertilize, Spray According to Preference

Applying one pound of actual nitrogen, per 1,000 square feet of lawn, can promote healthy grass growth and a thicker lawn. Consider two fall fertilizers applications about six weeks apart at this rate. Both organic and conventional fertilizers are available.
Yard owners using herbicides can get the best control of broadleaf weeds (like dandelions!) through a fall application. Always follow all label requirements, and use an herbicide product that combines “active ingredients” to improve the effect of weed control.